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Upper Back Pain Spotswood NJ

Back pain (also known as dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.

Back pain may have a sudden onset or can be a chronic pain; it can be constant or intermittent, stay in one place or radiate to other areas. It may be a dull ache, or a sharp or piercing or burning sensation. The pain may radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include symptoms other than pain, such as weakness, numbness or tingling.

Back pain is one of humanity's most frequent complaints. In the U.S., acute low back pain (also called lumbago) is the fifth most common reason for physician visits. About nine out of ten adults experience back pain at some point in their life, and five out of ten working adults have back pain every year.

The spine is a complex interconnecting network of nerves, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments, and all are capable of producing pain. Large nerves that originate in the spine and go to the legs and arms can make pain radiate to the extremities.

Sciatica Pain Spotswood NJ

Sciatica is a set of symptoms including pain that may be caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots that give rise to each sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the left or right or both sciatic nerves. The pain is felt in the lower back, buttock, or various parts of the leg and foot. In addition to pain, which is sometimes severe, there may be numbness, muscular weakness, pins and needles or tingling and difficulty in moving or controlling the leg. Typically, the symptoms are only felt on one side of the body. Pain can be severe in prolonged exposure to cold weather.

Although sciatica is a relatively common form of low back pain and leg pain, the true meaning of the term is often misunderstood. Sciatica is a set of symptoms rather than a diagnosis for what is irritating the root of the nerve, causing the pain. This point is important, because treatment for sciatica or sciatic symptoms often differs, depending upon the underlying cause of the symptoms and pain levels.

The first known use of the word sciatica dates to 1451.

Knee Pain Spotswood NJ

Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain. Awareness and knowledge of knee pain causes lead to faster diagnosis and treatment. Knee pain can be related to knee joint or around the knee. Pain in one of the knees is most commonly caused by overusing the knee or suddenly injuring it.

The knee joint consists of three bones: the femur, tibia, and patella. There are three compartments to the knee. The main joint of the knee is called tibiofemoral joint that includes the medial and lateral compartments. The patella and the femur form the patellofemoral joint. This is the third compartment of the knee.

Referred pain is that pain perceived at a site different from its point of origin but innervated by the same spinal segment. Sometimes knee pain may be related to another area from body. For example, knee pain can come from ankle, foot, hip joints or lumbar spine.

Lower Back Pain Spotswood NJ

Low back pain or lumbago is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting 80% of people at some point in their lives. In the United States it is the most common cause of job-related disability, a leading contributor to missed work, and the second most common neurological ailment — only headache is more common. It can be either acute, subacute or chronic in duration. With conservative measures, the symptoms of low back pain typically show significant improvement within a few weeks from onset.

Lower back pain may be classified by the duration of symptoms as acute (less than 4 weeks), sub acute (4–12 weeks), chronic (more than 12 weeks).

The majority of lower back pain stems from benign musculoskeletal problems, and are referred to as non specific low back pain; this type may be due to muscle or soft tissues sprain or strain, particularly in instances where pain arose suddenly during physical loading of the back, with the pain lateral to the spine. Over 99% of back pain instances fall within this category. The full differential diagnosis includes many other less common conditions.

Shin Pain Spotswood NJ

Medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial periostitis or shin splints is a common injury that affects athletes who engage in running sports or basic activities such as cross country, football, or hiking. MTSS injuries affect the connective muscle tissue surrounding the tibia (bone located near the lower leg). This injury is brought on by exerting too much pressure on the lower leg muscles or excessive impact on the muscle. Consequences of severe MTSS can result in, at worst, broken bones.

Most shin splints, known as Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS), can be attributed to overloading the muscles of the lower extremities or biomechanical irregularities. Muscle imbalance, including weakened core muscles lead to more lower-extremity injuries; also the inflexibility and tightness of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantar muscles (commonly the flexor digitorum longus) can contribute to shin splints. Increasing activity, intensity, and duration too quickly leads to shin splints because the tendons and muscles are unable to absorb the impact of the shock force as they become fatigued; also, the tibial bone-remodeling capabilities are overloaded. Some experts believe that this pain is caused from disruption of Sharpey's fibres that connect the medial soleus fascia through the periosteum of the tibia to insert into the bone. With repetitive stress, the impact forces eccentrically fatigue the soleus and create repeated tibial bending or bowing; thus, contributing to MTSS. The impact is made worse by running on uneven terrain, uphill, downhill, or hard surfaces. Improper footwear, including worn-out shoes can also contribute to shin splints.

Risk factors for developing MTSS include:

  • Excessive pronation at subtalar joint
  • Excessively tight calf muscles (which can cause excessive pronation)
  • Engaging the medial shin muscle in excessive amounts of eccentric muscle activity
  • Undertaking high-impact exercises on hard, noncompliant surfaces (ex: running on asphalt or concrete)

While MTSS is the most common name, other conditions often overlap as causes including compartment syndrome and stress fractures. Females are 1.5 to 3.5 times more likely to progress to stress fractures from shin splints. This is mostly due in part to females having a higher incidence of diminished bone density and osteoporosis. Shin splint pain is described as a recurring dull ache along the posteromedial aspect of the distal two-thirds of the tibia; the difference in stress fracture pain is that it is typically localized to the fracture site and is more proximal than the pain caused by MTSS. Studies have found that there are no neurological or vascular abnormalities associated with MTSS.

People with flat feet are especially prone to shin splints. Bio-mechanically, over-pronation is the common cause for medial tibial stress syndrome. It involves excessive inward rolling that causes tibial twisting and overstretching of the lower extremity muscles. Having poor form, such as leaning forward or backward too much, as well as running with toes pointing outwards all contribute to the causation of shin splints.

Medial tibial stress syndrome is the most prevalent form of shin splints and can affect a broad range of individuals. It affects mostly runners and accounts for approximately 13% to 17% of all running-related injuries. High school age runners see MTSS injury rates of approximately 13%. Aerobic dancers have also been known to suffer from MTSS, with injury rates as high as 22%. Military personnel undergoing basic training see lower MTSS injury rates between 4% and 6.4%

Ankle Pain Spotswood NJ

A sprained ankle, also known as an ankle sprain, twisted ankle, rolled ankle, ankle injury or ankle ligament injury, is a common medical condition where one or more of the ligaments of the ankle is torn or partially torn.

Sprains happen when the foot is rolled or turned beyond motions that are considered normal for the ankle. An ankle sprain usually occurs when a person lands from jumping or running onto an uneven surface. If the ankle is placed into an abnormal position at the same time, overstretching of the ligaments can occur. The ligaments of the ankle hold the ankle bones and joint in position, and therefore help to stabilise the ankle joint. They protect the ankle joint from abnormal movements-especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot.

The risk of an ankle sprain is greatest during activities that involve explosive side-to-side motion, such as tennis or basketball. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:

  • Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint (i.e. peroneal or fibular muscles);
  • Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;
  • Poor ankle flexibility;
  • Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity;
  • Inadequate joint proprioception (i.e. sense of joint position);
  • Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;
  • Running on uneven surfaces;
  • Shoes with inadequate heel support; and
  • Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.

Wrist Pain Spotswood NJ

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment median neuropathy, causing paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel. The pathophysiology is not completely understood but can be considered compression of the median nerve traveling through the carpal tunnel. The National Center for Biotechnology Information and highly cited older literature say the most common cause of CTS is typing. More recent research by Lozano-Calderón has cited genetics as a larger factor than use, and has encouraged caution in ascribing causality.

The main symptom of CTS is intermittent numbness of the thumb, index, long and radial half of the ring finger. The numbness often occurs at night, with the hypothesis that the wrists are held flexed during sleep. Recent literature suggests that sleep positioning, such as sleeping on one's side, might be an associated factor. It can be relieved by wearing a wrist splint that prevents flexion. Long-standing CTS leads to permanent nerve damage with constant numbness, atrophy of some of the muscles of the thenar eminence, and weakness of palmar abduction.

Pain in carpal tunnel syndrome is primarily numbness that is so intense that it wakes one from sleep. Pain in electrophysiologically verified CTS is associated with misinterpretation of nociception and depression.

Palliative treatments for CTS include use of night splints and corticosteroid injection. The only scientifically established disease modifying treatment is surgery to cut the transverse carpal ligament

Elbow Pain Spotswood NJ

Lateral epicondylitis or lateral epicondylalgia, also known as tennis elbow, shooter's elbow, and archer's elbow, is a condition where the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender. It is commonly associated with playing tennis and other racquet sports, though the injury can happen to almost anyone.

Tennis elbow is an overuse injury occurring in the lateral side of the elbow region, but more specifically it occurs at the common extensor tendon that originates from the lateral epicondyle. While the common name "tennis elbow" suggests that people who play tennis may develop this condition, other activities of daily living may also cause it.

Data was collected from 113 patients who had tennis elbow, and the main factor common to them all was overexertion. Sportspersons as well as those who used the same repetitive motion for many years, especially in their profession, suffered from tennis elbow. It was also common in individuals who performed motions they were unaccustomed to. The data also mentioned that the majority of patients suffered tennis elbow in their right arms.

Other descriptions for tennis elbow are lateral epicondylosis, lateral epicondylalgia, or simply lateral elbow pain.

Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The acute pain that a person might feel occurs as one fully extends the arm. Since the pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown, an appropriate name is still in the works. Despite the term "tennis elbow," tennis players make up a small number of individuals who suffer from this ailment, which is often found in manual workers such as builders and waiters. Bowden states that it should be called lateral elbow syndrome.

Runge is usually credited for the first description in 1873 of the condition. The term tennis elbow was first used in 1883 by Major in his paper "Lawn-tennis elbow".

Foot Pain Spotswood NJ

March fracture, also known as fatigue fracture or stress fracture of metatarsal bone, is the fracture of the distal third of one of the metatarsals occurring because of recurrent stress. It is more common in soldiers, but also occurs in hikers, organists, and even those, like hospital doctors, whose duties entail much standing. March fractures most commonly occur in the second and third metatarsal bones of the foot. It is a common cause of foot pain, especially when people suddenly increase their activities.

Stress fracture can occur at many sites in the body; "march fracture" simply refers to a stress fracture specifically of the metatarsals, thus named because the injury is sometimes sustained by soldiers during sustained periods of marching. Although march fractures can occur to the 5th metatarsal, fractures of this bone are more likely to be trauma-related fractures to the diaphysis, termed Jones fractures. In runners, march fracture occurs most often in the metatarsal neck, while in dancers it occurs in the proximal shaft. In ballet dancers, fracture mostly occurs at the base of the second metatarsal and at Lisfranc joints. This fracture always occurs following a prolonged stress or weight bearing, and the history of direct trauma is very rare. Consideration should always be given to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Cavus feet are a risk factor for march fracture.

Shoulder Pain Spotswood NJ

Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well.

Shoulder pain may be localized or may be deferred to areas around the shoulder or down the arm. Disease within the body (such as gallbladder, liver, or heart disease, or disease of the cervical spine of the neck) also may generate pain that the brain may interpret as arising from the shoulder. Conversely, pain felt in the region of the shoulder blade or scapula nearly always has its origin in the neck.

The shoulder joint is composed of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) (see diagram). Two joints facilitate shoulder movement. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is located between the acromion (part of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder) and the clavicle. The glenohumeral joint, to which the term "shoulder joint" commonly refers, is a ball-and-socket joint that allows the arm to rotate in a circular fashion or to hinge out and up away from the body. The "ball" is the top, rounded portion of the upper arm bone or humerus; the "socket," or glenoid, is a dish-shaped part of the outer edge of the scapula into which the ball fits. Arm movement is further facilitated by the ability of the scapula itself to slide along the rib cage. The capsule is a soft tissue envelope that encircles the glenohumeral joint. It is lined by a thin, smooth synovial membrane.

The bones of the shoulder are held in place by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Tendons are tough cords of tissue that attach the shoulder muscles to bone and assist the muscles in moving the shoulder. Ligaments attach shoulder bones to each other, providing stability. For example, the front of the joint capsule is anchored by three glenohumeral ligaments.

The rotator cuff is a structure composed of tendons that, with associated muscles, holds the ball at the top of the humerus in the glenoid socket and provides mobility and strength to the shoulder joint.

Two filmy sac-like structures called bursae permit smooth gliding between bone, muscle, and tendon. They cushion and protect the rotator cuff from the bony arch of the acromion.

Rotator Cuff Pain Spotswood NJ

In anatomy, the rotator cuff (or rotor cuff, sometimes called rotary cup) is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. The four muscles of the rotator cuff are over half of the seven scapulohumeral muscles.

The rotator cuff muscles are important in shoulder movements and in maintaining glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) stability. These muscles arise from the scapula and connect to the head of the humerus, forming a cuff at the shoulder joint. They hold the head of the humerus in the small and shallow glenoid fossa of the scapula. The glenohumeral joint has been analogously described as a golf ball (head of the humerus) sitting on a golf tee (glenoid fossa).

During abduction of the arm, the rotator cuff compresses the glenohumeral joint, a term known as concavity compression, in order to allow the large deltoid muscle to further elevate the arm. In other words, without the rotator cuff, the humeral head would ride up partially out of the glenoid fossa, lessening the efficiency of the deltoid muscle. The anterior and posterior directions of the glenoid fossa are more susceptible to shear force perturbations as the glenoid fossa is not as deep relative to the superior and inferior directions. The rotator cuff's contributions to concavity compression and stability vary according to their stiffness and the direction of the force they apply upon the joint.

The supraspinatus muscle fans out horizontally band to insert on the superior and middle facets of the greater tuberosity. The greater tubercle projects as the lateral most structure on anterior to posterior radiographs of the shoulder with the bicipital groove just medial to it at the humeral head. Medial to this, in turn, is the lesser tuberosity of the humeral head. The subscapularis muscle origin is divided from the remainder of the rotator cuff origins as it is deep to the scapula.

Plantar Fasciitis Spotswood NJ

Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a painful inflammatory process of the plantar fascia, the connective tissue on the sole (bottom surface) of the foot. It is often caused by overuse of the plantar fascia or arch tendon of the foot. It is a very common condition and can be difficult to treat if not looked after properly. Another common term for the affliction is "policeman's heel".

Longstanding cases of plantar fasciitis often demonstrate more degenerative changes than inflammatory changes, in which case they are termed plantar fasciosis. The suffix "osis" implies a pathology of chronic degeneration without inflammation. Since tendons and ligaments do not contain blood vessels, they do not actually become inflamed. Instead, injury to the tendon is usually the result of an accumulation over time of microscopic tears at the cellular level.

The plantar fascia is a thick fibrous band of connective tissue originating on the bottom surface of the calcaneus (heel bone) and extending along the sole of the foot towards the toes. It has been reported that plantar fasciitis occurs in two million Americans a year and in 10% of the U.S. population over a lifetime. It is commonly associated with long periods of weight bearing. Among non-athletic populations, it is associated with a high body mass index. The pain is usually felt on the underside of the heel and is often most intense with the first steps of the day. Another symptom is that the sufferer has difficulty bending the foot so that the toes are brought toward the shin (decreased dorsiflexion of the ankle). A symptom commonly recognized among sufferers of plantar fasciitis is an increased probability of knee pains, especially among runners.

Treatment options for plantar fasciitis include rest, massage therapy, stretching, weight loss, night splints, motion control running shoes, physical therapy, cold therapy, heat therapy, orthotics, anti-inflammatory medications, injection of corticosteroids and surgery in refractory cases. Also, in some cases, massaging of the inflamed location serves as a temporary relief.

Achilles Tendon Pain Spotswood NJ

The Achilles tendon (or occasionally Achilles’ tendon), also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendo calcaneus, is a tendon of the posterior leg. It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone.

Initial treatment of damage to the tendon is generally nonoperative. Orthotics can produce early relief to the tendon by the correction of malalignments, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally to be avoided as they make the more-common tendinopathy (degenerative) injuries worse; though they may very occasionally be indicated for the rarer tendinitis (inflammatory) injuries. Physiotherapy by eccentric calf stretching under resistance is commonly recommended, usually in conjunction with podiatric insoles or heel cushioning. According to reports by Hakan Alfredson, M.D., and associates of clinical trials in Sweden, the pain in Achilles tendinopathy arises from the nerves associated with neovascularization and can be effectively treated with 1–4 small injections of a sclerosant. In a cross-over trial, 19 of 20 of his patients were successfully treated with this sclerotherapy.

In a case where Achilles tendon rupture is concerned, there are three main types of treatment: the open and the percutaneous operative methods, and nonoperative approaches.

Depending on the severity of the injury, recovery from an Achilles injury can take up to 12–16 months.

Fibromyalgia Spotswood NJ

Fibromyalgia (FM or FMS) is a medical disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and allodynia, a heightened and painful response to pressure. It is an example of a diagnosis of exclusion. Fibromyalgia symptoms are not restricted to pain, leading to the use of the alternative term fibromyalgia syndrome for the condition. Other symptoms include debilitating fatigue, sleep disturbance, and joint stiffness. Some patients may also report difficulty with swallowing, bowel and bladder abnormalities, numbness and tingling, and cognitive dysfunction. Fibromyalgia is frequently comorbid with psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety and stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Not all people with fibromyalgia experience all associated symptoms. Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–4% of the population, with a female to male incidence ratio of approximately 9:1. The term "fibromyalgia" derives from new Latin, fibro-, meaning "fibrous tissues", Greek myo-, "muscle", and Greek algos-, "pain"; thus the term literally means "muscle and connective tissue pain")

The brains of fibromyalgia patients show structural and behavioral differences from those of healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether the brain anomalies cause fibromyalgia symptoms or are the product of an unknown underlying common cause. Some research suggests that these brain anomalies may be the result of childhood stress, or prolonged or severe stress.

Historically, fibromyalgia has been considered either a musculoskeletal disease or neuropsychiatric condition. Although there is as yet no cure for fibromyalgia, some treatments have been shown by controlled clinical trials to effectively reduce symptoms, including medications, behavioral interventions, patient education, and exercise. The most recent approach of a diagnosis of fibromyalgia involves pain index and a measure of key symptoms and severity.

Fibromyalgia has been recognized as a diagnosable disorder by the US National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology. Fibromyalgia, a central nervous system disorder, is described as a 'central sensitisation syndrome' caused by neurobiological abnormalities which act to produce physiological pain and cognitive impairments as well as neuro-psychological symptomatology. Despite this, some health care providers do not consider fibromyalgia a disease because of a lack of abnormalities on physical examination and the absence of objective diagnostic tests.

Myofascial Spotswood NJ

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), also known as chronic myofascial pain (CMP), is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain caused by multiple trigger points and fascial constrictions. Among the symptoms are referred pain, limited range of motion, and sleep disturbance.

Myofascial pain can occur in distinct, isolated areas of the body, and because any muscle or fascia may be affected, this may cause a variety of localized symptoms. More generally speaking, the muscular pain is steady, aching, and deep. Depending on the case and location the intensity can range from mild discomfort to excruciating and "lightning-like". Knots may be visible or felt beneath the skin. The pain does not resolve on its own, even after typical first-aid self-care such as ice, heat, and rest.

MPS and fibromyalgia share some common symptoms, such as hyperirritability, but the two conditions are distinct. However, a patient may suffer from MPS and fibromyalgia at the same time. In fibromyalgia, chronic pain and hyperirritability are pervasive. By contrast, while MPS pain may affect many parts of the body, it is still limited to trigger points and hot spots of referred pain.

The precise causes of MPS are not fully documented or understood. Some systemic diseases, such as connective tissue disease, can cause MPS. Poor posture and emotional disturbance might also instigate or contribute to MPS.

Neck Pain Spotswood NJ

Neck pain (or cervicalgia) is a common problem, with two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives.

Neck pain, although felt in the neck, can be caused by numerous other spinal problems. Neck pain may arise due to muscular tightness in both the neck and upper back, or pinching of the nerves emanating from the cervical vertebrae. Joint disruption in the neck creates pain, as does joint disruption in the upper back.

The head is supported by the lower neck and upper back, and it is these areas that commonly cause neck pain. The top three joints in the neck allow for most movement of your neck and head. The lower joints in the neck and those of the upper back create a supportive structure for your head to sit on. If this support system is affected adversely, then the muscles in the area will tighten, leading to neck pain.

Neck pain may also arise from many other physical and emotional health problems.

Neck pain may come from any of the structures in the neck including: vascular, nerve, airway, digestive, and musculature / skeletal or be referred from other areas of the body.

Major and severe causes of neck pain include:

The more common and lesser neck pain causes include:

  • Stress – physical and emotional stresses
  • Prolonged postures – many people fall asleep on sofas and chairs and wake with sore necks
  • Minor injuries and falls – car accidents, sporting events and day to day minor injuries
  • Referred pain – mostly from upper back problems
  • Over-use – muscular strain is one of the most common causes
  • Whiplash
  • Herniated disc
  • Pinched nerve

Although the causes are numerous, most are easily rectified by either professional help or using self help advice and techniques.

More causes include poor sleeping posture, torticollis, head injury, rheumatoid arthritis, Carotidynia, congenital cervical rib, mononucleosis, rubella, certain cancers, ankylosing spondylitis, cervical spine fracture, esophageal trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, lymphadenitis, thyroid trauma, and tracheal trauma.

Migraine Headache Spotswood NJ

Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by moderate to severe headaches, and nausea. It is about three times more common in women than in men. The word derives from the Greek ἡμικρανία (hemikrania), "pain on one side of the head", from ἡμι- (hemi-), "half", and κρανίον (kranion), "skull".

The typical migraine headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature and lasting from two to 72 hours; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, photophobia (increased sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound); the symptoms are generally aggravated by routine activity. Approximately one-third of people who suffer from migraine headaches perceive an aura—transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbances signaling the migraine will soon occur.

Initial treatment is with analgesics for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers. The cause of migraine headache is unknown; the most supported theory is that it is related to hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and/or abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.

Studies of twins indicate a 60- to 65-percent genetic influence upon their propensity to develop migraine headaches. Moreover, fluctuating hormone levels indicate a migraine relation: 75 percent of adult patients are women, although migraine affects approximately equal numbers of prepubescent boys and girls. Propensity to migraine headache sometimes disappears during pregnancy, but in some women, migraines may become more frequent.

Migraines typically present with recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms. An aura only occurs in a small percentage of people. The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks is variable. A migraine lasting 72 hours is termed status migrainosus and can be treated with intravenous prochlorperazine. The four possible phases to a migraine attack are listed below, although not all the phases are necessarily experienced. Additionally, the phases experienced and the symptoms experienced during them can vary from one migraine attack to another in the same person:

  1. The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache
  2. The aura, which immediately precedes the headache
  3. The pain phase, also known as headache phase
  4. The postdrome

Tension Headache Spotswood NJ

A tension headache (renamed a tension-type headache by the International Headache Society in 1988) is the most common type of primary headache. The pain can radiate from the neck, back, eyes, or other muscle groups in the body. Tension-type headaches account for nearly 90% of all headaches. Approximately 3% of the population has chronic tension-type headaches.

Tension-type headache pain is often described as a constant pressure, as if the head were being squeezed in a vise. The pain is frequently bilateral which means it is present on both sides of the head at once. Tension-type headache pain is typically mild to moderate, but may be severe.

Tension-type headaches can be episodic or chronic. Episodic tension-type headaches are defined as tension-type headaches occurring fewer than 15 days a month, whereas chronic tension headaches occur 15 days or more a month for at least 6 months. Tension-type headaches can last from minutes to days, months or even years, though a typical tension headache lasts 4–6 hours.

Hip Pain Spotswood NJ

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), also known as trochanteric bursitis, is inflammation of the trochanteric bursa, a part of the hip.

This bursa is situated adjacent to the femur, between the insertion of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles into the greater trochanter of the femur and the femoral shaft. It has the function, in common with other bursae, of working as a shock absorber and as a lubricant for the movement of the muscles adjacent to it.

Occasionally, this bursa can become inflamed and clinically painful and tender. This condition can be a manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis or of an injury (often resulting from a twisting motion or from overuse), but sometimes arises for no obviously definable cause. The symptoms are pain in the hip region on walking, and tenderness over the upper part of the femur, which may result in the inability to lie in comfort on the affected side.

More often the lateral hip pain is caused by disease of the gluteal tendons which secondarily inflames the bursa. This is most common in middle-aged women and is associated with a chronic and debilitating pain which does not respond to conservative treatment. Other causes of trochanteric bursitis include uneven leg length, iliotibial band syndrome, and weakness of the hip abductor muscles.

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome can remain incorrectly diagnosed for years, because it shares the same pattern of pain with many other musculoskeletal conditions. Thus people with this condition may be labeled malingerers, or may undergo many ineffective treatments due to misdiagnosis. It may also coexist with low back pain, arthritis, and obesity.

Rib Problems Spotswood NJ

Humans have 24 ribs (12 pairs). The first seven sets of ribs, known as "true ribs", are directly attached to the sternum through the costal cartilage. Rib 1 is unique and harder to distinguish from other ribs. It is a short, flat, C-shaped bone. The vertebral attachment can be found just below the neck and the majority of this bone can be found above the level of the clavicle. Ribs 2 through 7 have a more traditional appearance. The following five sets are known as "false ribs", three of these sharing a common cartilaginous connection to the sternum, while the last two (eleventh and twelfth ribs) are termed floating ribs (costae fluitantes) or vertebral ribs. They are attached to the vertebrae only, and not to the sternum or cartilage coming off of the sternum. Some people are missing one of the two pairs of floating ribs, while others have a third pair. Rib removal is the surgical excision of ribs for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons.

In general, human ribs increase in length from ribs 1 through 7 and decrease in length again through rib 12. Along with this change in size, the ribs become progressively oblique (slanted) from ribs 1 through 9, then less slanted through rib 12.

The ribcage is separated from the lower abdomen by the thoracic diaphragm which controls breathing. When the diaphragm contracts, the thoracic cavity is expanded, reducing intra-thoracic pressure and drawing air into the lungs. This happens through one of two actions (or a mix of the two): when the lower ribs the diaphragm connects to are stabilized by muscles and the central tendon is mobile, when the muscle contracts the central tendon is drawn down, compressing the cavity underneath and expanding the thoracic cavity downward. When the central tendon is stabilized and the lower ribs are mobile, a contraction of the diaphragm elevates the ribs, which works in conjunction with other muscles to expand the thoracic indent upward.

Trauma Spotswood NJ

Trauma (from Greek τραῦμα, "wound") refers to "a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident." It can also be described as "a physical wound or injury, such as a fracture or blow." Major trauma (defined by an Injury Severity Score of greater than 15) can result in secondary complications such as circulatory shock, respiratory failure and death. Resuscitation of a trauma patient often involves multiple management procedures. Trauma is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 10% of all mortality, and is a serious public health problem with significant social and economic costs.

Running Injuries Spotswood NJ

Because of its high-impact nature, many injuries are associated with running. They include "runner's knee" (pain in the knee), shin splints, pulled muscles (especially the hamstring), twisted ankles, iliotibial band syndrome, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and stress fractures. Repetitive stress on the same tissues without enough time for recovery or running with improper form can lead to many of the above. Runners generally attempt to minimize these injuries by warming up before exercise, focusing on proper running form, performing strength training exercises, eating a well balanced diet, allowing time for recovery, and "icing" (applying ice to sore muscles or taking an ice bath).

Foot blisters are also common among runners. Specialized socks greatly help to prevent blisters.

Another common, running-related injury is chafing, caused by repetitive rubbing of one piece of skin against another, or against an article of clothing. One common location for chafe to occur is the runner's upper thighs. The skin feels coarse and develops a rash-like look. A variety of deodorants and special anti-chafing creams are available to treat such problems. Chafe is also likely to occur on the nipple.

A cold bath is a popular treatment of subacute injuries or inflammation, muscular strains, and overall muscular soreness, but its efficacy is controversial. Some claim that for runners in particular, ice baths offer two distinct improvements over traditional techniques. First, immersion allows controlled, even constriction around all muscles, effectively closing microscopic damage that cannot be felt and numbing the pain that can. One may step into the tub to relieve sore calves, quads, hams, and connective tissues from hips to toes will gain the same benefits, making hydrotherapy an attractive preventive regimen. Saint Andrew's cross-country coach John O'Connell, a 2:48 masters marathoner, will hit the ice baths before the ibuprofen. "Pain relievers can disguise injury", he warns. "Ice baths treat both injury and soreness." The second advantage involves a physiological reaction provoked by the large amount of muscle submerged. Assuming one has overcome the mind's initial flight response in those first torturous minutes, the body fights back by invoking a "blood rush". This rapid transmission circulation flushes the damage-inflicting waste from the system, while the cold water on the outside preserves contraction. Like an oil change or a fluid dump, the blood rush revitalizes the very areas that demand fresh nutrients.

Some runners may experience injuries when running on concrete surfaces. The problem with running on concrete is that the body adjusts to this flat surface running and some of the muscles will become weaker, along with the added impact of running on a harder surface. Therefore it is advised to change terrain occasionally – such as trail, beach, or grass running. This is more unstable ground and allows the legs to strengthen different muscles. Runners should be wary of twisting their ankles on such terrain. Running downhill also increases knee stress and should therefore be avoided. Reducing the frequency and duration can also prevent injury.

A common acronym used to help the recovery process is RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation.

Another injury prevention method common in the running community is stretching. Stretching is often recommended as a requirement to avoid running injuries, and it is almost uniformly performed by competitive runners of any level. Recent medical literature, however, finds mixed effects of stretching prior to running. One study found insufficient evidence to support the claim that stretching prior to running was effective in injury prevention or soreness reduction. Another, however, has demonstrated that stretching prior to running increases injuries, while stretching afterwards actually decreases them. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that all stretching be done after exercise because this is when the muscles are most warmed up and capable of increasing flexibility. Recent studies have also shown that stretching will reduce the amount of strength the muscle can produce during that training session.

Proper running technique can dramatically lower the risk of running injuries. Engaging the hips, driving the thigh or knee, pushing off with the ankles and not the hamstrings, pawing your legs back, and erect posture are some of the key actions in proper running technique. Running injuries can be from a lack of strength and stride length and pushing off with the hamstrings and not the ankle. The hamstrings and gluteus maximus are not involved in the push off phase of running, contrary to popular belief.

Barefoot running has been promoted as a means of reducing running related injuries though this position on barefoot running remains controversial and a majority of professionals advocate the wearing of appropriate shoes as the best method for avoiding injury.

Recent studies have shown that runners do not have more osteoarthritis than people who do not run.

TMJ Syndrome Spotswood NJ

Temporomandibular joint disorder, TMJD (in the medical literature TMD), or TMJ syndrome, is an umbrella term covering acute or chronic pain, especially in the muscles of mastication and/or inflammation of the temporomandibular joint, which connects the mandible to the skull. The primary cause is muscular hyper- or parafunction, as in the case of bruxism, with secondary effects on the oral musculoskeletal system, like various types of displacement of the disc in the temporomandibular joint. The disorder and resultant dysfunction can result in significant pain, which is the most common TMD symptom, combined with impairment of function. Because the disorder transcends the boundaries between several health-care disciplines — in particular, dentistry and neurology — there are a variety of treatment approaches.

The temporomandibular joint is susceptible to many of the conditions that affect other joints in the body, including ankylosis, arthritis, trauma, dislocations, developmental anomalies, neoplasia and reactive lesions.

An older name for the condition is "Costen's syndrome", after James B. Costen, who partially characterized it in 1934.

Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder vary in their presentation and can be very complex, but are often simple. On average the symptoms will involve more than one of the numerous TMJ components: muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, bones, connective tissue, and the teeth. Ear pain associated with the swelling of proximal tissue is a symptom of temporomandibular joint disorder.

Symptoms associated with TMJ disorders may be:

  • Biting or chewing difficulty or discomfort
  • Clicking, popping, or grating sound when opening or closing the mouth
  • Dull, aching pain in the face
  • Earache (particularly in the morning)
  • Headache (particularly in the morning)
  • Hearing loss
  • Migraine (particularly in the morning)
  • Jaw pain or tenderness of the jaw
  • Reduced ability to open or close the mouth
  • Tinnitus
  • Neck and shoulder pain
  • Dizziness

Chiropractic Spotswood NJ

Chiropractic is a health care profession concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the neuromusculoskeletal system and the effects of these disorders on general health. It is generally categorized as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Although chiropractors have many attributes of primary care providers, chiropractic has more of the attributes of a medical specialty like dentistry or podiatry.

The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, including manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft tissues; treatment also includes exercises and health and lifestyle counseling. Traditional chiropractic assumes that a vertebral subluxation interferes with the body's innate intelligence, a vitalistic notion ridiculed by the scientific and healthcare communities. A large number of chiropractors want to separate themselves from the traditional vitalistic concept of innate intelligence.

D.D. Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s, and his son B.J. Palmer helped to expand it in the early 20th century. It has two main groups: "straights", now the minority, emphasize vitalism, innate intelligence and spinal adjustments, and consider vertebral subluxations to be the cause of all disease; "mixers", the majority, are more open to mainstream views and conventional medical techniques, such as exercise, massage, and ice therapy.

Chiropractic is well established in the U.S., Canada and Australia and is the "third largest of the doctored health professions (behind only medicine and dentistry)". It overlaps with other manual-therapy professions, including massage therapy, osteopathy, and physical therapy. Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain.

Throughout its history, chiropractic has been controversial. For most of its existence it has battled with mainstream medicine, sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and innate intelligence that are not based on solid science. Despite the general consensus of public health professionals regarding the benefits of vaccination, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the subject, which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream acceptance of chiropractic. The American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific cult" and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987. Chiropractic has developed a strong political base and sustained demand for services; in recent decades, it has gained more legitimacy and greater acceptance among medical physicians and health plans in the U.S., and the principles of evidence-based medicine have been used to review research studies and generate practice guidelines.

Many studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted, often with conflicting results. Manual therapies commonly used by chiropractors are effective for the treatment of low back pain, and might also be effective for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy, neck pain, some forms of headache, and some extremity joint conditions. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care are unknown.

Chiropractic care is generally safe when employed skillfully and appropriately. Spinal manipulation is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects, with serious or fatal complications in rare cases. A systematic review found 26 recorded deaths from manipulations to the spine during the period 1934-2009 (a death rate less than 0.00002% of ), concluding that the risk of cervical chiropractic treatment outweighs the benefits.

Tendonosis Spotswood NJ

Tendinosis, sometimes called chronic tendinitis, tendinosus, chronic tendinopathy or chronic tendon injury, is damage to a tendon at a cellular level (the suffix "osis" implies a pathology of chronic degeneration without inflammation). It is thought to be caused by microtears in the connective tissue in and around the tendon, leading to an increase in tendon repair cells. This may lead to reduced tensile strength, thus increasing the chance of tendon rupture. Tendinosis is often misdiagnosed as tendinitis due to the limited understanding of tendinopathies by the medical community. Classical characteristics of "tendinosis" include degenerative changes in the collagenous matrix, hypercellularity, hypervascularity and a lack of inflammatory cells which has challenged the original misnomer "tendinitis".

Tendons are very slow to heal if injured, and rarely regain their original strength. Partial tears heal by the rapid production of disorganized type-III collagen, which is weaker than normal tendon. Recurrence of injury in the damaged region of tendon is common.

Standard treatment of tendon injuries is largely palliative. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with Physical Therapy, rest and gradual return to exercise is a common therapy, although there is evidence to suggest that tendinosis is not an inflammatory disorder, and that anti-inflammatory drugs are not an effective treatment and that inflammation does not cause tendon dysfunction. There are a variety of treatment options, but more research is necessary to determine their effectiveness. Initial recovery is usually within 2 to 3 months and full recovery is within 3 to 6 months. About 80% of patients will fully recover.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Spotswood NJ

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment median neuropathy, causing paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel. The pathophysiology is not completely understood but can be considered compression of the median nerve traveling through the carpal tunnel. The National Center for Biotechnology Information and highly cited older literature say the most common cause of CTS is typing. More recent research by Lozano-Calderón has cited genetics as a larger factor than use, and has encouraged caution in ascribing causality.

The main symptom of CTS is intermittent numbness of the thumb, index, long and radial half of the ring finger. The numbness often occurs at night, with the hypothesis that the wrists are held flexed during sleep. Recent literature suggests that sleep positioning, such as sleeping on one's side, might be an associated factor. It can be relieved by wearing a wrist splint that prevents flexion. Long-standing CTS leads to permanent nerve damage with constant numbness, atrophy of some of the muscles of the thenar eminence, and weakness of palmar abduction.

Pain in carpal tunnel syndrome is primarily numbness that is so intense that it wakes one from sleep. Pain in electrophysiologically verified CTS is associated with misinterpretation of nociception and depression.

Palliative treatments for CTS include use of night splints and corticosteroid injection. The only scientifically established disease modifying treatment is surgery to cut the transverse carpal ligament.

Tennis Elbow Spotswood NJ

Lateral epicondylitis or lateral epicondylalgia, known colloquially as tennis elbow, shooter's elbow, and archer's elbow or simply lateral elbow pain, is a condition where the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender. Since the pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown, there is no single agreed name. While the common name "tennis elbow" suggests a strong link to racquet sports, this condition can also be caused by sports such as swimming and climbing, the work of manual workers and waiters, as well as activities of daily living.

Tennis elbow is an overuse injury occurring in the lateral side of the elbow region, but more specifically it occurs at the common extensor tendon that originates from the lateral epicondyle. The acute pain that a person might feel occurs as one fully extends the arm.

In one study, data was collected from 113 patients who had tennis elbow, and the main factor common to them all was overexertion. Sportspersons as well as those who used the same repetitive motion for many years, especially in their profession, suffered from tennis elbow. It was also common in individuals who performed motions they were unaccustomed to. The data also mentioned that the majority of patients suffered tennis elbow in their right arms.

Runge is usually credited for the first description in 1873 of the condition. The term tennis elbow was first used in 1883 by Major in his paper "Lawn-tennis elbow".

Golfers Elbow Spotswood NJ

Golfer's elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is an inflammatory condition of the medial epicondyle of the elbow. It is in some ways similar to tennis elbow.

The anterior forearm contains several muscles that are involved with flexing the fingers and thumb, and flexing and pronating the wrist. The tendons of these muscle come together in a common tendinous sheath, which is inserted into the medial epicondyle of the humerus at the elbow joint. In response to minor injury, or sometimes for no obvious reason at all, this point of insertion becomes inflamed.

The condition is called Golfer's Elbow because in making a golf swing this tendon is stressed, especially if a non-overlapping (baseball style) grip is used; many people, however, who develop the condition have never handled a golf club. It is also sometimes called Pitcher's Elbow due to the same tendon being stressed by the throwing of objects such as a baseball, but this usage is much less frequent. Other names are Climber's Elbow and Little League Elbow: All of the flexors of the fingers insert at the medial epicondyle, making this the most common elbow injury for rock climbers, whose sport is very grip intensive.

Epicondylitis is much more common on the lateral side of the elbow, rather than the medial side. In most cases, its onset is gradual and symptoms often persist for weeks before patients seek care. In Golfer's elbow, pain at the medial epicondyle is aggravated by resisted wrist flexion and pronation, which is used to aid diagnosis. On the other hand, Tennis elbow is indicated by the presence of lateral epicondylar pain precipitated by resisted wrist extension. Although the condition is poorly understood at a cellular and molecular level, there are hypotheses that point to apoptosis and autophagic cell death as causes of chronic lateral epicondylitis. The cell death may decrease the muscle density and cause a snowball effect in muscle weakness - this susceptibility can compromise a muscle's ability to maintain its integrity. So athletes, like pitchers, must work on preventing this cell death via flexibility training and other preventative measures.

Vertigo Spotswood NJ

Vertigo /ˈvɜː(ɹ)tɨɡoʊ/ (from the Latin vertō "a whirling or spinning movement") is a subtype of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary. The symptoms are due to an asymmetric dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear. It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as a balance disorder, causing difficulties standing or walking. There are three types of vertigo: (1) Objective − the patient has the sensation that objects in the environment are moving; (2) Subjective − patient feels as if he or she is moving; (3)Pseudovertigo − intensive sensation of rotation inside the patient's head.

Dizziness and vertigo rank among the most common complaints in medicine, affecting approximately 20%-30% of the general population. Vertigo may be present in patients of all ages. However, it is rarely a primary concern amongst children, and becomes more prevalent with increasing age. The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, concussion and vestibular migraine while less common causes include Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis. Excessive consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages) can also cause notorious symptoms of vertigo. (For more information see Short term effects of alcohol). Repetitive spinning, as in familiar childhood games, can induce short-lived vertigo by disrupting the inertia of the fluid in the vestibular system.

Ergonomic Training Spotswood NJ

Ergonomics is the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements and its cognitive abilities.

The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows:

Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

Ergonomics is employed to fulfill the two goals of health and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability

Double Crush Syndrome Spotswood NJ

True carpal tunnel syndrome stems from impingement or irritation of the median nerve in the wrist, usually affecting the thumb and first finger. Since some fibers of the median nerve are derived from the 6th and 7th cervical nerves, it's possible for the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome to be confused with nerve symptoms originating in the neck. When there is compression of the median nerve in the wrist as well as compression of the 6th or 7th cervical nerve in the neck, the overlapping symptoms are called "double crush syndrome," and require attention to both the wrist and the neck. A neurologist can determine whether the symptoms are originating in the wrist, the neck, or both, by using nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography to locate sites of damage and nerve root compression. Your chiropractor should be willing to send your records to a neurologist for a definitive diagnosis. If your neck is not at fault, it should be left alone.

Assuming that chiropractic treatment is appropriate, it is not possible to predict in advance how many sessions would be needed. Treatment should be discontinued when symptoms disappear or get worse. The chiropractor's reluctance to share information with your family doctor is improper.

Trigger Finger Spotswood NJ

Trigger finger, trigger thumb, or trigger digit, is a common disorder of later adulthood characterized by catching, snapping or locking of the involved finger flexor tendon, associated with dysfunction and pain. A disparity in size between the flexor tendon and the surrounding retinacular pulley system, most commonly at the level of the first annular (A1) pulley, results in difficulty flexing or extending the finger and the “triggering” phenomenon. The label of trigger finger is used because when the finger unlocks, it pops back suddenly, as if releasing a trigger on a gun.

Diagnosis is made almost exclusively by history and physical examination alone. More than one finger may be affected at a time, though it usually affects the thumb, middle, or ring finger. The triggering is usually more pronounced in the morning, or while gripping an object firmly.

De Quervain's Syndrome Spotswood NJ

De Quervain syndrome (French pronunciation: [də kɛʁvɛ̃]; also known as gamer's thumb, washerwoman's sprain, radial styloid tenosynovitis, de Quervain disease, de Quervain's tenosynovitis, de Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis, mother's wrist, or mommy thumb), is a tendinosis of the sheath or tunnel that surrounds two tendons that control movement of the thumb.

It is named after the Swiss surgeon Fritz de Quervain who first identified it in 1895. It should not be confused with de Quervain's thyroiditis, another condition named for the same person.

The two tendons concerned are the tendons of the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus muscles. These two muscles, which run side by side, have almost the same function: the movement of the thumb away from the hand in the plane of the hand—so called radial abduction (as opposed to movement of the thumb away from the hand, out of the plane of the hand (palmar abduction)). The tendons run, as do all of the tendons passing the wrist, in synovial sheaths, which contain them and allow them to exercise their function whatever the position of the wrist. Evaluation of histological specimens shows a thickening and myxoid degeneration consistent with a chronic degenerative process. The pathology is identical in de Quervain seen in new mothers.

De Quervain's is more common in women; the speculative rationale for this is that women have a greater angle of the styloid process of the radius.

Metatarsalgia Spotswood NJ

Metatarsalgia (literally metatarsal pain, colloquially known as stone bruise) is a general term used to refer to any painful foot condition affecting the metatarsal region of the foot. This is a common problem that can affect the joints and bones of the metatarsals. Metatarsalgia is most often localized to the first metatarsal head (the ball of the foot just behind the big toe). There are two small sesamoid bones under the first metatarsal head. The next most frequent site of metatarsal head pain is under the second metatarsal. This can be due to either too short a first metatarsal bone or to "hypermobility of the first ray" (metatarsal bone + medial cuneiform bone behind it), both of which result in excess pressure being transmitted into the second metatarsal head.

Brachial Plexus Spotswood NJ

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord, which is housed in the spinal canal of the vertebral column (or spine), to the shoulder, arm and hand. These nerves originate in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical (C5-C8), and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate the muscles and skin of the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, are caused by damage to those nerves.

Brachial plexus injuries, or lesions, can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, tumours, or inflammation. The rare Parsonage-Turner Syndrome causes brachial plexus inflammation without obvious injury, but with nevertheless disabling symptoms. But in general, brachial plexus lesions can be classified as either traumatic or obstetric. Obstetric injuries may occur from mechanical injury involving shoulder dystocia during difficult childbirth. Traumatic injury may arise from several causes. "The brachial plexus may be injured by falls from a height on to the side of the head and shoulder, whereby the nerves of the plexus are violently stretched....The brachial plexus may also be injured by direct violence or gunshot wounds, by violent traction on the arm, or by efforts at reducing a dislocation of the shoulder joint".

Mortons Neuroma Spotswood NJ

Morton's neuroma (also known as Morton's metatarsalgia, Morton's neuralgia, plantar neuroma and intermetatarsal neuroma) is a benign neuroma of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve, most commonly of the third and fourth intermetatarsal spaces.

This problem is characterised by pain and/or numbness, sometimes relieved by removing footwear.

Despite the name, the condition was first correctly described by a chiropodist named Durlacher, and although it is labeled a "neuroma", many sources do not consider it a true tumor, but rather a perineural fibroma (fibrous tissue formation around nerve tissue).

Symptoms include: pain on weight bearing, frequently after only a short time. The nature of the pain varies widely among individuals. Some people experience shooting pain affecting the contiguous halves of two toes. Others describe a feeling like having a pebble in their shoe. Burning, numbness, and paresthesia may also be experienced.

Morton's neuroma lesions have been found using MRI in patients without symptoms


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